These notes are adapted from a session run by Cathy Hamer at the Bodleian Libraries.
Why do we ask questions at interview?
The main purpose is to assess the interviewee’s abilities, so to be fair to all candidates, a consistent approach is necessary. Careful planning of questions allows the candidate to do most of the talking, demonstrate how their skills and experience fit the role, and their responses to be assessed against the selection criteria for the role.
Open vs closed questions
Closed questions allow only short answers, such as ‘yes’ or ‘no. Example: Did you have supervisory responsibilities in your previous job?
While closed questions may be suitable for confirming details at the end of an interview, they do not allow the candidate to elaborate on their experience. Open questions use words such as ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘where’, ‘who’, ‘how’ and ‘why’. Example: ‘How do you set priorities in tackling your workload?’. Using an open question increases the amount of information the interviewee can give you, and helps you learn about their opinions and attitudes.
Asking more than one question at once causes confusion and often the candidate will only answer the last or easiest questions. Example: ‘In your last job, what were your responsibilities in terms of monitoring the budget, and what was the system for balancing and checking the cash account?’. Don’t ask multiple questions – separate out the questions and ask them individually.
A leading question is one which indicates the required response, for example ‘Presumably you will get on well with your work colleagues?’. The interviewee can only provide a useful answer by interrupting or disagreeing, as they are unlikely to say ‘No’. Instead, ask a more open question such as ‘Tell us about your experience of working in a small team’.
Questions relating to the candidate’s sex, age, marital status, ethnic origin, religious beliefs, sexual orientation or disabilities are an obvious no-no. For example: ‘How old are you?’ and ‘Do you have any children?’.
These are a type of open question, and can be very helpful in assessing a candidate’s thinking skills and how quickly they can respond to a new situation. Example: ‘How would you go about planning the move of this unit/office to another building?’
These are a type of closed question which can be useful in ascertaining how many people the candidate has managed or the size of the budget for which they have had responsibility. They are best used in conjunction with a follow-up question to allow the candidate to give a more descriptive response.
Examples: ‘Tell me about a time when you had to make a decision that involved a large expenditure’ or ‘Describe a situation in which you had to work to a tight deadline.’
Past job behaviour is a good guide to future performance, so asking for prior examples can be useful in predicting if the candidate will be able to demonstrate the necessary skills in the new job.
Every conversation is different, even though the main interview questions will be the same for each candidate. Sometimes you will need to probe a bit further for more details, or to validate a claim. Be careful not to lose the thread of the main question. Probing questions can also be useful to help the candidate back on track if they have gone off on a tangent in their answer.
- Well in advance, determine which aspects of the selection criteria you are going to assess at interview
- Design a question for each skill that you wish to assess
- As far as possible, keep questions open and only ask one at a time
- Avoid closed questions, giving away the ‘correct’ answer
- Address any gaps on the application form
- Use a combination of application form/letter, task and interview to assess each candidate against all the selection criteria for the job